To ensure that they remain productive and contained within their intended space, year upon year, fruit trees can be pruned into a variety of forms as follows:


Espalier refers to apple or pear trees which are trained in a horizontal/parallel manner.  This is ideal for trees which are to be trained along walls or fences.  To ensure productivity, at least 30-40cm should be left between tiers and additional tiers trained should be limited to one per year.



Also suitable for training along walls or fences, this form is ideal for growing sensitive varieties, as it allows them to be grown in a sheltered spot.



This form is trained to grow up in a single column.  Suitable where horizontal space is limited.


Step Over

Trained to grow horizontally, this form is ideal where vertical space is limited.  Especially enjoyable for children, as it allows them to pick fruit unaided.


Duo Cordon

A tree which is trained to grow in an upright fashion but with one variety grafted onto the top of another.  A great space-saver for compact gardens.



Ideal for training along walls or fences, this form contains two different varieties trained on separate stems, grafted onto a single trunk.


Family Trees

These are untrained trees which include a number of varieties, making them an economical solution for many gardeners.